The antecedent forces that formed modern criminality are rooted in the past, so far in the past that it is startling. But before we begin, readers must go to Wikipedia to search for the definition of evolution-- find this most adqute because of the wide range of references. Please study this definition, for it is one of the most researched, verifiable and verified definitions in science.
To begin, some years ago, in Winnipeg, a friend, who was for a quite some time a constabe in the Winnipeg police force, left the force because there were always new criminals arising each year, retirement elligibility was close and all the police forces could not stop this incoming tide of criminals. His name was Joe. Joe never answered the oft posed question of why is there an influx each year. In fact, Joe never thought much about it. For him, the problem was just there, but he lasted for 30 years and retired.
Here is the answer to Joe's problem. But first, let us go back in time, back to before humans arrived on the evolutionary scene.
Further, let us go back, back far in time, so far back that man had not yet evolved. Firstly, we will go back about ten, yes, only ten million years. In was in fact then that the first ape-like creature whose fossil remains were discovered in what is now northern Egypt. Nice it would be and interesting, if the start was with the dinosaurs, but because many relate to dinosaurs from exposure to television, movies and comic strips and sensational findings in southern Saskatchewan near Eastend, we will allude here only briefly to dinosaurs as they are just another small area of importance within the scope of this treatise. However, mammals did arise some 300 million years ago (Ma). These mammals had some hair, lactated by modified sweat glands on the stomach area, and had erect legs--evolved from legs spreading out sideways; this adaptation gave them much more speed and mobility. These mammal-like reptiles some 260 Ma died out with many other reptiles at the beginning and during the massive Permian-Triassic extinction. With many niches empty, new creatures and plants evolved as they entered these new and empty niches. The first dinosaurs appeared some 230 Ma followed by primitive mammals some 15 million years later, at about 215 Ma. The mammals were small, nocturnal and had the beginnings of warm-bloodedness; and had some hair and modified sweat glands that produced a milk. That evolutionary advance allowed them to enter new, empty, changing and colder niches.
(If interested, please go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geological_history_of_Earth or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale for the Geological History of Earth.)
(Even before the above generalized ape-like mammal, a preccursor to man, cats had evolved perhaps 35 million years ago. The cat example will later serve as a good comparison. We will apply many of its evolutionary traits to human behaviour. Today it survives in many forms, namely the Felis species. In the Middle Eocene (about 42 Ma--Million years Before the Present) the Miacids (Greek : old mother), the first true Carnivores, started to branch into two distinct groups of the order Carnivora: the Feliforms and Caniforms--cat-like and dog-like forms. The Miacid precursors to the extant Feliforms remained forest-dwelling, arboreal or semi-arboreal ambush hunters, while the Caniform precursors were more mobile, opportunistic hunters. While it is clear the first Feliforms appeared at this time, there is no clear common ancestor of the Feliform families in the fossil record. As forest dwellers, the early Feliforms were subject to more rapid decomposition in the absence of sedimentary materials, causing many large time gaps in the fossil record. The first pre-cat appeared about 36 million years ago (Ma) probably in North America, but died out some 10 million years later. Re-appearing as Felidae, having crossed over from Asia by the dried Bering Sea bed. We could use Felidae as a comparison and contrast to mammals, but only briefly.)
Whew, now let us get on to general mammalian developement! The first mammal-like animals, the Therapids which had Amphibian ancestors, died out with the Permian/Triassic massive extinction some 250 Ma. However, with the multitude of niches emptied, new or destroyed, new animal forms, and plant forms too, evolved. Competition for niches and food sources brought about the need for these small cat-sized creatures to evolve similar changes to the stomach skin sweat glands into milk producing. Then these modified sweat glands evolved into breasts . Along with the nocturnal new mammals with fur pelt covering, a homeostatic body heat system evolved--an advanced warm-bloodedness. These changes began about 215 Ma--10 million years before the Dinosaurs came on the evolutionary scene! These small new mammals were the rugrats to the Reptiles and dinosaurs and were poised to replace them after the great bolide extinction of 65.6 Ma. With empty and new niches and armed with fur and with warm-bloodedness, the mammals began in earnest to fill in the new niches.
But before the Yucatan bolide bombardment and concomitant explosion and following cold climate times, the furry mammals evolved into pouched mammals, the monotremes around 115 Ma. Later, about 105 Ma, the first placental animals with advanced offspring development at birth evolved, an evolutionary advancement over the pouched monotremata, or kangaroo-like mammals. Tyrannus rex evolved about 68 Ma, and only 1.5 or 2 million years later to disappear with the Yucatan impacting meteorite. The small, mostly nocturnal, warm-blooded mammals survived in many niches spread throughout the planet. New limb, shoulder, speedier reflexes, and improved binocular vision capabilities evolved. A major change also occurred; the brains of mammals became more complex, sometimes changing at 10 times the normal rate of mutation--much to the disadvatage of those of lesser smarts (the time was ripe for evolution to have a breakthrough eqivalent to animals emerging from sea to land and the lake edge green algae to land plants)! [So what?] Those who competed with the evolving Homo species were out-smarted for feeding , home, play and new areas. In the search for new areas, many left Africa to eventually occupy all areas of the world. The paleo-mammalian brain was becoming more complex by adding a mantle over the limbic system; that new brain structures evolved into the neo-mammalian brain. Now, recall that the R-complex or reptilian brain evolved from a fish brain. Also, the R-complex, or brain stem, slowly added the Limbic system, now called the paleo-mammalian brain. An advanced ape form, to begin showing advances, arose, in Africa about 6.5Ma, a bit taller, it had a brain volume of about 350cc. Evolving later with precursors getting larger and brain cases larger arrived 3 or 4 Ma later. They were Austrlopithecus and Kenyanthropus with brain cases about 550cc. Later after more species with gradual increases in size and brain size, there arrived the first Homo species--Homo habilis with 680cc sized grey matter. He arrived on the scene about 1.8 Ma another H habilis fossils had a 650cc brain 1.6 Ma. H habilis had a tool kit, encamped, was erect and was bipedal. He too was pushed aside by Homo erectus--taller, more robust with a cranial capacity of 940cc. H erectus left Africa to populate southern Europe, the mid-East, the Indian sub-continent and areas about present day Indonesia. In all places it evolved into the Peking man (China) and others Like the Jaava man. H erectus learned to use fire about 1.7 Ma. Some became as tall as 1.85m.
The evolving Homo species became the dominant life form of the planet because they were smarter and possessed the characterisitic of ruthlessness among othersresident in the R-complex, or reptilian features! Over the eons of time, early ape creatures competed for niches and the smaller-brained ones (for the most part proportionally smaller brained) were gradually pushed out by smarter and often larger ape forms. Evolving into hominids, these advanced apes became tool users and passed much information to their offspring. The hominids evolved, in Africa, into Homo species. The Homo species continued to evolve larger brains and pushed, largely due to intelligence and size, the weaker and less imaginative
The Reptile brain and paleo-mammalian brain are still resident in the neo-mammalian brain. The two have their former characterics, powerful remnants of the distant past. The neo pallium, or neo cortex brought with it its new behaviours and behaviours to control the "beast within" or R-complex.
However, the R-complex and paleo-mammalian brain, the limbic system, did not just change, but added to these two older brains, the neo-palidium. (Please research MacLean's work on the tri-partite brain at: http://www.kheper.net/topics/intelligence/MacLean.htm ).
The brain is still evolviong. Within the brain of Homo sapiens sapiens, in the prefrontal cortex is located a centre for social conscience, this area is the last centre to 'mature' with females' centre (with its myriad of neurite connexions throughout the brain) maturing some 4 to 6 years prior to the male brain--female at 20 and males at 25, both approximately. Another area, in the right temporal lobe is a spot that I call the "Nurturing Centre". The area is most often larger than normal in very nurtured young. I predict that the future of mankind rests on these two areas maturing much earlier than now, and that the social conscience areas of both males and females must evolve into maturity before puberty. This advance will ensure the future of humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, and that success will enhance humanity. The succes then is is predicated on four four-lettered words and one six-lettered word. The are, love, bond, care, hope and speech Too, the social conscience and nurturing brain areas must evolve. This evolution must turn to favouring the female while reducing the anti-human behaviour of testosterone male modified brains. this could be done by epigenetic tendencies modifying the expressions of Lizard brained behaviour as far as aggression and blindly following leaders are concerned. It is essential that this occurs; the future of mankind demands it. Gone should be the religious attempts to over populate the finite resourced Mother Earth. With these advances, much of youth crime would disappear and adult crime would be decimated. It must happen soon because the "lizard brained" war mongers and greedy" American type Capitalists" types are at the gates, and at the turning point of advancing into the somewhat Nordic-fashion civilisation must be adopted, or those two 'deadly sins' will end up destroying civiliation as we know it and perhaps the endangerment of life on earth. The potential of a man-made society destroying bolide impact is at hand!
Some very important characteristics are resident in the Reptile brain, or the brain stem. They are the found in the oldest part of the triune brain.
fight or flight
movement, posture and balance.
blindly following a leader to food or flight from danger.
Read below for more characteristics in
Reptilian Brain Characteristics
MacLean claims to have found in the R-complex and Limbic systems a physical basis for dogmatic and paranoid tendencies--some right-wing thinking, some religions and other dictatorial agencies. Further, it holds the characteristics are still resident in the old brains that emerge when primal urges are evoked, they are autonomic and under the control of tha autonomic nervous system which has two divisions. They are the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous systems (PNS which controls much of lizard brain functions). The major characteristics of the reptile brain are much like insect behaviour! Although our deepest brain is similar in formation to that of reptiles, and although some of the basic activities of this brain seem very reptilian such as repetition, imitation, and deception, this reptile brain evolved; it evolved and developed a limbic system becoming the paleomammalian brain. The paleo-mammalian brains has different memories, both short-term and long-term. Some memories have odours associated with them! (Please research Limbic System). The paleo-mammalian brain includes the R -complex feeding and habits thereof, it is involved in sex and reproduction, the basic 'fight or flight' neural networks for that syndrome, but one that is extremely important is one that affects all individuals and groups to this day is the one of "blindly following a leader"; that is, the neo-mammalian brain contains a well nigh totally inter-connectedness with the inner "reptilian brain" with its archaic behavioural programs that snakes and lizards do have. Many behaviours are rigid, obsessive, compulsive, ritualistic and paranoid, that primitive brain is "filled with ancestral memories". It keeps repeating the same behaviours over and over again, never learning from past mistakes (corresponding to what Sri Aurobindo calls the mechanical Mind )which is much like that of insects. This brain controls muscles, balance and autonomic functions, such as breathing and heartbeat. This part of the brain is active, even in deep sleep. Present day officials, when planning crowd control, must consider the "blindly following a leader" compulsive uncontrolable behaviour of all mostly testosterone loaded male youth!. For examples, the recent Said soccer rioting which left scores dead, the Vancouver "Stanley Cup Riots" which resulted in millions of dollars in damages, as well as "running of the bulls" in some countries which injures many; and the like.
This evolutionary inheritance can be a hindrance and menace in modern society!
Another hindrance is that the testosterone loaded brain, mostlty male brains, can be a threat to society. Located in the pre-frontal cortex, the area has empathy and social conscience wiring, this area is not fully developed in males some five or six years later (about age 25) than females. Please note that these facts show that blindly following a leader to be statistically more significant in males; and each of the reptilian behaviours is not an all or nothing condition. Some males are exceedinly socially conscious at 19 or earlier and some females may not be normally socially conscious until 25 or older. Those mature males who have little social conscience include Atilla the Hun, Hitler, far right-wing conservatives, and the borderline personality types (a.k.a. anti-social personality syndrome). The lack or limited complexity of the social conscience area and wiring is found in the alpha male syndrome (aided by testosterone). Some females with an over-abundance, at maturity, of testosterone are also found with male aggressive, non-thinking behaviours. Both are found in all walks of life, especially in business, politics, soldiers, police, prison guards, risk takers, and so on. (The above is common scientific knowldge [CSK]; so let us read a bit more :-) ). Please note that the alpa male syndrome is evolutionarily related to the 'flight or fight' syndrome. Further it is strongly related to species preservation, a very powerful force. Another powerful force is self-preservation.
Now let us put a bunch of the above together. Each fact needs to have the question posed, "So what?". If done, then by syllogistic means we are able to arrive at why there is rampant criminality in mankind, with males far out-numbering females in crimial acts, and why it is encumbent on "civilisation" to take means to control the 'reptilian inheritance'.
The extinction of the dinosaurs, about 65 Ma, left a mulititude of niches empty, changed temperaturewise, and physical changes from the bolide impact. Small cat-sized mammals took advantage of the opportunity (as did many sea, land and air creatures.
Ok, let us re-examine the characteristics of the human R-complex, or the monster within, it has the basic features for survival. They are, breathing, digestion, circulation, elimination, fight or flight syndrome, movement, carriage, muscle tone and balance as well as blindly following a leader to food, water, mates and away from danger. When one thinks of survival, on must ponder on fight or flight, One must also be cogizant of species and self-preservation. Let us put these survival mechanisms into modern perspective. Modern man is influenced by his reptiloian past. This is a given. Civilization and civility; police, laws, punishment and the like are social controls to combat the R-complex rashful impulses or lizard brain reactions. Repetitious behaviours or ritualistic and predictive reactive behaviours to the immediate environs cause in the modern man such behaviours as fear of losing a wife or job or even dying (not all fear these). Of more importance are, might is right, obsessive compulsive behaviour, blindly following a leader resulting in looting and destruction! This losing one's head, tempoarily, results in remorse and owning up to many upright individuals; many others will attempt to 'get away with it' by deception and evasion. That lizard in us is a blatant crook. In modern man, criminality is modified by rhetoric, outright deceit, complex grifting, hiding behind one's office, self and group preservation,
Long conclusion key words to sequence and arrange logically: roles of male and female, evolution, advances in In animal groups (plants and Protista too, but clearly not so obvious) of the same species there is much competition, not only in individuals but in groups as in a pack of wolves seeking prey. What are these areas? They are food, water, mates, nesting areas, hunting areas, fresh air, play areas and more. Similar groups with similar hunting and gathering habits are also in competition. A prime example is the competition between the Homo sapiens sub species, namely in this example, the Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthaensis (H. ss and H. sn). One may, I do, include H. sapiens heidlebergensis, but not here due to space, but it is here anyway. However all three had more complex and advanced cultures (tools, art forms, dress, weapons, use of fire among others) over the more primitive Homo erectus. (H. e widespread, H. sn with its unchanging Mousterian culture and H. sh--were forced out by superior brains, efficiency, some inter breeding--stealing women, etc.)